Friday, September 25, 2009

Veterinary industry marks World Rabies Day


In support of World Rabies Day efforts, two manufacturers of veterinary rabies vaccines are raising awareness of the disease and working to combat its spread in Africa.
Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health has announced that it will again sponsor rabies vaccine donations to the Afya Serengeti project. In recognition of the urgent need for global rabies control, veterinarians in the United States can participate in canine rabies vaccination and donation program to save lives in the Serengeti region of Africa.
Each day, approximately 100 children die from rabies. In Africa alone, around 25,000 people die from this horrible and preventable disease each year. Kept as both pets and working animals, domestic dogs are an essential part of everyday life in the Serengeti, yet they account for 84.2% of rabies cases. Controlling the disease in domestic dogs means reducing deaths from rabies in children.
For every dose of select dog and cat vaccines purchased by US veterinarians between September 1 and December 31, 2009, Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health will donate a dose of canine rabies vaccine to Afya Serengeti, which means “Health for Serengeti” in Swahili. By vaccinating and keeping pets healthy here in the United States, veterinarians and pet owners can extend help to Africa to control this devastating disease.
Afya Serengeti is a rabies control project that works to control rabies in this region of Tanzania by vaccinating domestic dogs. These dogs are responsible for more than 8 of 10 cases of the deadly disease. Pet owners become part of this important cause when their pets are vaccinated with a Continuum canine or feline vaccine, Nobivac Lyme or Canine Influenza Vaccine, H3N8.
Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health has committed up to 250,000 doses worldwide to the project this year, of which 150,000 will come from the United States. To date, the support of veterinarians throughout the world has enabled the global animal health company to donate more than 900,000 doses as well as subsidize the purchase of a vehicle for the delivery of vaccines to a larger geographic area.
Veterinarians can visit www.afya.org to make a donation, learn more about the issue, and view videos about the impact of the project on the Serengeti region.
In other news, the Student American Veterinary Medical Association (SAVMA) chapters competed to raise funds for rabies prevention and education programs. This year's winner, Kansas State University (K-State), earned an on-site rabies symposium sponsored by Merial, held on Sept. 19.
"Rabies awareness and education is critical to public health and safety in the United States and around the world," said Ralph Richardson, DVM, dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine at K-State. "Kansas State University is committed to efforts that help prevent rabies and is excited to be the host of the Merial Rabies Symposium."
With the recent passing of George Baer, DVM, MPH, the "father of oral rabies vaccination," this year's event had a special meaning. Baer was regarded as an international wildlife rabies expert and was credited with developing one of the first oral vaccines that eliminated red fox rabies from several countries in Western Europe. In recognition of his efforts, the 2009 rabies symposium was dedicated to him.
In addition to the symposium, Merial supports other rabies awareness and educational efforts, including the sponsorship of nine rabies training seminars for Noah's Wish, an international nonprofit organization that rescues and cares for endangered animals during natural disasters.

Issue Date: Veterinary Forum
September 2009
(Vol 26, No 9)


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Sunday, June 14, 2009

South Korea on alert over residues in duck meat

26 May, 2009

Korea banned the import of Chinese heat-processed duck meat after discovering an antimicrobial: cloramfenicol in duck meat. Korea has prohibited the use on animals since 1991.
The National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (NVRQS) said it found 1.0 parts per billion of Chloramphenicol in a 3.8 tonne-shipment of meat from a Chinese meat exporter.
The ban will be imposed until Henan Huangchuan Huaying Poultry Corporation-Meat Products Co. can determine the exact cause of the contamination and ensure that tainted meat is not shipped to South Korea in the future.
Source: Poultry Med

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Tuesday, May 26, 2009

What does swine flu do to piglets?

Issue Date: Veterinary Forum
May 2009
(Vol 26, No 5)


What does swine flu do to piglets?

BANGKOK, Thailand — Researchers studying the effects of H1N1 influenza in a group of piglets have found that all infected animals showed flu-like signs 1 to 4 days after infection and were shedding virus 2 days after infection, according to Virology Journal.

Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, DVM, PhD, led a team of researchers from Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, who infected piglets 3 weeks of age with both the H1N1 strain of swine flu and the less dangerous H3N2 subtype.

“The results demonstrated that both swine flu subtypes were able to induce flu-like signs and lung lesions in weanling pigs,” Thanawongnuwech said. “However, the severity of the disease with regard to both gross and microscopic lung lesions was greater in the H1N1-infected pigs.”

All infected pigs developed respiratory signs, such as nasal discharge, coughing, sneezing and conjunctivitis. On pathologic examination, lung lesions large enough to be seen without a microscope were observed. According to Thanawongnuwech, “these lesions were characterized by dark, plum-colored, consolidated areas on lung lobes and were most severe 2 days after infection, especially in the H1N1-infected pigs, where approximately one-third of the lung was covered.” The course of infection was limited to 1 week or less. None of the animals died.

Veterinary Forum

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Sunday, May 24, 2009

Choosing a dog breeder.

Most people are very interested in animals, especially dogs, wanted to have an apartment or house. Dog breeder is a person, you can contact if you want a pure-bred dog. But the problems that dog the breeder reputation and you should make sure that the person who, after the animals are healthy and they are. Easy to see ads in local newspapers, but it is recommended to ensure that breeders of dogs selected by the Board. How to select the dog breeder?

The aim of this paper is to propose some ways to tell if a person responsible and trustworthy or not.

Search Reference

In general, a dog breeder is responsible and professional and very careful with the reference: if it can be extended, the characteristics of each person, a professional who is interested. A good dog breeder to provide information about the past and the dog gets a phone number or a contact. You can see the effect. You can always contact breeder dog, which has contributed to some of your friends because you can say you are responsible for it.

You will be asked a series of questions

A good dog breeder may be that animals and humans have many more questions for you. They wanted to ensure that the animals are in the right environment, people in the law because it is very important. They have information about your life and the economy, or if you have children or not, the size of houses and gardens and other issues to ensure that the dog is the right place with the right family. If the dog breeder does not ask all these questions with regard to money and you can not see the dog well.

Risks and Insurance

A professional dog breeder has all the dogs and puppies for sale through medical tests mereka.Yet, there are some problems that can be observed after several months or years. Golden Retriever, for example, can be a problem, it is dysphasia, genetic errors in the hip joints of animals that can not be seen until the animal is several months. In this case, a good dog breeder will not trouble to give the money back, or what circumstances. genetics of this problem can be avoided by selective breeding, but there are many chicken because hereditary disease, while some of them as hereditary effects.

Another way a dog breeder

Internet and local newspapers, but some places where you can a dog breeder. You can also try to pet stores and veterinarians, and exhibition of dogs. This means that if a dog breeder is reliable for success and love for dogs and performance that you did.

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Friday, May 22, 2009

"Alternative" Medicine on your pets

Field of alternative medical treatment animals is to analyze and consider the various things that have a direct impact on the life of your pet. Including the practices that use a combination of conventional and alternative methods to find the best answers to solve problems in your pet.

Many veterinarians who understand the alternative treatment of dog and cat, to provide a comprehensive evaluation that includes the behavior, nutrition, environment, emotional stress and other factors on your pet. Veterinarians recognize that this practice will provide a variety of additional services beyond the standard physical examination continued.

You can now create a revitalized with alternative healing gem necklace on your pets. The question is why I must have with this?. Yes necklace can now be offered on alternative your pets. On the internet offered a lot of sales of accessories for your dogs and cats online.

Aromatherapy is also an effective complementary therapy in the psychological treatment, the condition of restlessness, stress, and depression. Could not be denied a relationship between the baud memory. The term refers to the use of aromatherapy perfume or essential oil. This oil is a concentrated perfume (essences) are taken from plant sources such as wood, flowers, fruit, root-akaran, leaves and resins.Do you know breathe with the calm that is a matter of psychological activate positive emotional responses of the brain that control memory and emotion?

Do not you want your pet healthy and stylish? For that use an alternative method such as aromatherapy and the necklace can make the dog and cat you become more healthy and stylish.

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Tuesday, May 19, 2009

Fish and Humans May Share Pain Reactions

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. Fish don't make noises or contort their faces to show pain when hooks are removed from their mouths, but a Purdue University researcher believes they feel that pain all the same.
Joseph Garner, DPhil, an assistant professor of animal sciences at Purdue, helped develop a test that showed goldfish can feel pain and that their reactions to it are much like that of humans. "There has been an effort by some to argue that a fish's response to noxious stimuli is merely a reflexive action and that the fish didn't really feel pain," Garner said. "We wanted to see if fish responded to potentially painful stimuli in a reflexive way or a more clever way."
Garner and Janicke Nordgreen, a doctoral student at the Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, attached small foil heaters to the goldfish and slowly increased the temperature. To prevent any physical damage to tissue, the heaters were designed with sensors and safeguards that turned the heaters off at certain temperatures.
For the test, half of the fish were injected with morphine and the others received saline. The researchers believed that those receiving morphine would be able to withstand higher temperatures before reacting if they actually felt the pain. However, both groups of fish showed a response at about the same temperature.
Because both groups of fish wriggled at about the same temperature, the researchers thought the responses might be more like a reflex than a cognitive reaction. The reflexive response is similar to people involuntarily moving their hand off a hot stove.
However, subsequent observation of the goldfish in their home tanks found that each group exhibited different behaviors.
"The fish given the morphine acted like they always had: swimming and being fish," Garner said. "The fish that had received saline — even though they responded the same in the test — later acted differently. They showed defensive behaviors that indicated wariness, fear or anxiety."
Nordgreen said those behavioral differences demonstrated that fish can feel both reflexive and cognitive pain.
"The experiment shows that fish not only respond to painful stimuli with reflexes but also change their behavior after the event," Nordgreen said. "Together with what we know from experiments carried out by other groups, this indicates that the fish consciously perceive the test situation as painful and switch to behaviors indicative of having been through an aversive experience."
Garner believes that the morphine blocked the experience of pain, but not behavioral responses to the heat stimulus itself.
"If you have a headache and take a painkiller, the pain may go away, but you can still feel the presence or discomfort of the headache," Garner said. "The goldfish that did not get morphine experienced a painful, stressful event. Then 2 hours later, they turned that pain into fear," Garner said. "To me, it sounds a lot like how we experience pain."
The findings could raise questions about slaughter methods and how fish are handled in research. Garner said standards of care could be revisited to ensure fish are being treated humanely.
A paper detailing the finding was published in an online version of Applied Animal Behaviour Science.

source : http://www.vettechjournal.com

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Friday, May 8, 2009

Great advice to start training your rabbit

Mini Loop rabbits, all kinds of rabbits are very intelligent animals that are capable of waste trained, making it a total of more easy to assess as domestic servants. Although the formation of waste or rabbit type animal, for that matter, the first thing to note is that you need lots of patience, with positive reinforcement, which consists of praise and good health, kind treatment.

Here are some tips and trips to monitor the bed for your mini-LOP rabbits with the base, you should immediately:
- Cage: Even if your mini-LOP is a house and the animals must be free of the house, while the time needed to verify that everything is "Bunny-proofed," Most rabbits are all still a cage, and Above However, the waste to form a much simpler procedure.

To begin to teach your rabbit, the recovery of its waste box close to the field inside the cage in the corner, who chose as his name "Bad area. Once the idea that the area where he had to go, and you can read a little out of the house near the cage.

- Articles for cleaning up: some of the key you want on hand for cleaning after mini-cutting and the inevitable accidents, they also have white vinegar, which is excellent for cleaning urine stains, bleach to disinfect water at regular intervals, and is a hand vacuum or whiskbroom man and to clean.

The urine of a rabbit certainly very strong, strong smell, they go to the stain and remove it as soon as possible.

- Roll-top box: Although you can have a mini-LOP, with more than one area is generally recommended, as rabbits tend to spend much time on their waste.

- Launch: The type of bed is largely dependent on your rabbit and their own habits. It is, hands away from certain types of waste, not suitable for rabbits, as the nature, too dusty, which allows you to your pet is difficult, more and more popular or pieces that cat litter, which are introduced into the digestive tract and intestinal tract.

Your rabbit is necessarily nibble on waste so you want to make sure that what you have in the area will not be hurt in the process.

Some rabbits of the owner of the election of hay, in which each type of cats, and even newspapers, you save the urine, but no odor control. One way to check the newspaper box from the bottom of the waste and then, a handful of hay or straw, for the urine of rabbits in your body and feet.

Remember that, despite their best efforts in training, its mini-LOP yet Pills Drop waste scattered around the outside of your house to mark the territory as their own. This does not mean that your rabbit does not give lessons, or are unable to provide training, but it is a presentation of normal rabbits.

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Wednesday, May 6, 2009

First on the case Diarrhea

Diarrhea often occurs in young dogs & cats. However, Dogs & Cats diarrhea can also fell ill. If this is left, then the condition of animals will be tearing down due to dehydration (lack of fluids). Next result is fatal because it can threaten animal life who we loves

At the time of diarrhea, body fluids are involved exit through the back. Frequency defecation very often can be compared in normal circumstances. When our pet animals in healthy conditions, the activity of defecation between 1 - 2 times a day. Consistency faeces solid form until quite soft. Now in diarrhea, the consistency faeses be very weak until the liquid is sometimes accompanied by blood and or mucus. Frequency of defecation also become more frequent. The more often the more dangerous if left without adequate help.

Main issues need to be done is to seek re-entry of fluid into the body of a dog / cat who fell ill diarrhea. How to give fluids oralit a little bit, but often. Should not use oralit usually due to human oralit page contains fruit taste, such as citrus. Pain is not very liked cats. Mix sugar spoon with a little salt in a glass of warm water.  Forced feeding solution oralit  with the spoon, or spuit (without needle). This is a bit forced animals to drink. But be careful not to do so hiccup.

Do not give food (fasting) for 24 hours when the animals are mature age. However, when still  (kitten / puppy) just 12 hours only. Give food that is not neutral & can iritation of digestion, such as boiled chicken meat or tuna fish stew that choping. Can also be yellow chicken stew. Food is so specific to this condition is also available.

Place the animal at that clean, dry and warm. Anti-diarrhea medication can also be given as Kaopectat, Nifural, etc. Newdiatabs. Note the well-dose.

If in 24 hours condition does not improve, take it to  your veterinarian. Infus action may be required to return the liquid that has been out.

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Monday, May 4, 2009

Quit Biting Puppy

Learning to stop for a dog bite may seems, is impossible, but there is really a series of techniques you can use to bite dogs. If you stay in your training, you will be surprised how fast you can a dog is good.

Biting dogs are just doing that, of course, but when it starts to hurt or are in the process of destroying the furniture, it is time to act. This is achieved in several ways, but one of the best ways to stop dog sew is the use of their sense of taste to be.
If your dog is biting, while your hands are slightly worse taste your dog on your hands. You can find May, garlic or chili works best. A little experience and find something that your dog really did not like the taste. Once your dog is when you bite the hand that is very unpleasant taste, it will soon stop their evil deeds.

This technique can also be used in the furniture industry. Apply in small amounts in the fields of furniture, the next attack puppies bite. Soon it will turn its attention elsewhere. That fail to learn sewing Puppies May seem impossible, but with the tips that you bite the dog will soon be under control. You should always remember that you hold the course again, for your young dog to learn what the bite. Learn to stop biting dog is a matter of frequency and use the best technical training.

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Sunday, May 3, 2009

H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu)

Center of Dieasese Control and Prevention (CDC), continues to take measures for the incident caused by the expansion of H1N1 (swine flu). CDC answers goal is to reduce the transmission and severity of disease, and information for providers of health services to health and the public to cope with this emergency.

CDC continues to publish and update the daily life as a response to a rapidly changing situations. In the early morning, the guidelines of the CDC, the closure of schools. Supply to the CDC in the Department bearing the Country Strategy Paper (NHS) for all 50 states and territories of the United States to respond to the epidemic. Moreover, the federal government and manufacturers have the process of developing a vaccine against the new virus.

Answer forceful measures, but may vary from country to country and the communities that the local situation. Communities, businesses, places of worship, schools and all the people who take measures to curb the spread of the epidemic. Those for the patient at home to work or school and any contact with other people, unless medical care. This action may prevent a further spread of the disease.

Source: www.cdc.gov/swineflu
H1N1 Flu website last updated May 1, 2009, 8:45 PM ET

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Sunday, March 22, 2009

STRATEGIC DEWORMING OF CATS AND DOGS

Strategic deworming is a practice recommended by the American Association of Veterinary Parasitologists (AAVP) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

The plan consists of treating your pet for worms at regular intervals that are specifically designed to prevent parasite disease and the shedding of parasite eggs in your yard and home which can then re-infest your pet or family members. Almost all puppies and kittens are born with intestinal parasites. Therefore, it is recommended that your pet be treated every two weeks until three months of age, then monthly until six months of age. The interval should be adjusted based on the prepatent period of any parasites seen in a fecal sample.

We recommend that adult dogs and outside cats have fecal samples tested twice a year; adult indoor cats have fecal samples tested annually; and deworming be done twice a year on pets belonging to immunocompromised individuals.

Adults and children can be accidentally infected with roundworm, hookworm, and tapeworm, which are common parasites of dogs and cats. It is estimated that 10,000 children in the United States are infected annually with roundworm. People are exposed when they work or play in contaminated soil (garden or sandbox) and then accidentally put dirty hands in their mouth. Sometimes fruits and vegetables that grow close to the ground are contaminated.

Besides deworming your pet regularly, and washing your hands often, there are other measures you can take to decrease exposure to intestinal parasites:

* Clean up after your dog! Don’t leave feces in our parks or parkways, or in your yard. Daily maintenance is best!
* Control fleas! Fleas spread tapeworm.
* Wash all fruits and vegetables before eating.
* Do not allow children to go barefoot or sit on playgrounds or beaches where they are exposed to pet feces. Hookworm larvae can penetrate the skin and cause serious inflammation.
* Clean cat boxes daily and wash hands afterward.

If you or your child experience symptoms including fever, malaise, cough, rash, wheezing, appetite loss, or weight loss, consult your doctor immediately. The majority of intestinal parasite cases in humans are asymptomatic; however they can also affect the eye, skin, or nervous system.

Source : Family Pet Animal Hospital

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Clinical Update for Feline

UPDATE: November 2003

For the past five years during all feline annual examinations, we have discussed the Vaccination Associated Sarcomas and our attempts to reduce their incidence. We are concerned that many of our cat owners may not have made it in for their yearly physical examination and we are dedicated to getting this information out to everyone. Important changes are happening in veterinary medicine. Due to the emergence of Vaccination Associated Sarcomas, vaccination recommendations will be changing for all patients, including dogs.

The facts:

1. One in 5,000 feline patients receiving a vaccine, usually the Rabies or Feline Leukemia containing an adjuvant, will develop a malignant tumor called a fibrosarcoma right at the injection site. It starts as a small lump, called a granuloma. Depending on the cat’s immune system, the lump may disappear within three to four weeks, or it may continue to increase in size, transforming into a malignant fibrosarcoma. Once the tumor forms, it is extremely aggressive locally and very difficult to completely surgically remove. Multiple types of chemotherapy, as well as radiation therapy, have been tried post-surgically to prevent recurrence with variable success.

2. IT IS REQUIRED BY LAW as well as an important preventative measure to continue to vaccinate against the Rabies virus. Not only is Rabies fatal for cats, it is fatal for people and readily contagious through exposure to infected saliva. Multiple occurrences of bats getting into people’s homes and high-rise apartments are reported yearly in Chicago. The state of Illinois may elect to quarantine an unvaccinated cat for up to six months if exposed to a bat.

3. Keeping the above information in mind, we feel uncomfortable discontinuing any Rabies inoculation, even in strictly indoor cats. We had been giving a three-year vaccine, thereby reducing a cat’s exposure to the vaccine by one-third. Since May 11, 1999, Family Pet Animal Hospital has been using the new Purevax Rabies Vaccine made by Merial exclusively for cats. It is the only rabies vaccine made that does NOT have adjuvants or liquid fillers, so it virtually eliminates injection site inflammation that could lead to a vaccine sarcoma. The company has sold two million doses with only a few reported reactions. It is still licensed for a one year duration; the company is about two years away from completing the research required by the FDA for three year approval. Researchers on the Vaccine Sarcoma Task Force have proven this to be the safest Rabies vaccine available. While we wait for further studies to reveal whether it will have longer immune stimulation than one year, we must continue to vaccinate cats annually.

4. All Feline Leukemia vaccines should be discontinued unless there is absolute concern that your cat may be exposed to another cat, especially a stray. This includes indoor-outdoor cats, as well as cats that live in garden apartments and spend time in ground-floor windows with screens that may allow saliva from a stray cat to pass through. When this vaccine is necessary, it is a yearly vaccine after the initial two boosters.

5. The once annual FVRCP vaccine, protecting against Distemper and other upper respiratory viruses, has now been changed to a three-year vaccine as recommended by the American Association of Feline Practitioners. This has been our recommendation since their announcement in January of 1998 even though the vaccine company is still labeling the vaccine as necessary yearly.

6. The Rabies vaccine should be injected subcutaneously as low as possible in the right hindlimb and Leukemia, when absolutely necessary, should be given similarly but in the left hindlimb. The FVRCP should be placed as low as possible on the right shoulder. The thought behind this protocol is that if a tumor should develop it will be easier to treat surgically when located on a limb than on the shoulder area. In addition, we have changed all our vaccines to single-dose vials instead of ten-dose tanks to eliminate the risk of adjuvant settling to the bottom of the vial and having a higher concentration in the last two to three doses.

7. To monitor your cat, run your hands over the area(s) where the vaccine(s) were given. Check weekly for lumps (a hard, knot-like structure) in or just under the skin. Generally lumps are firm and not easily missed. They will usually be nonpainful and be about the size of a marble when first discovered. A lump may form up to THREE YEARS after vaccination. Any lump found should be examined ASAP and we are more than willing to do this at no charge.

8. We are extremely concerned about the emergence of this problem. We have dedicated ourselves to preventing suffering and promoting health and quality of life. Due to vaccinations, we rarely see Feline Panleukopenia or Rabies and have seen a great reduction in cats with Feline Leukemia Virus. We never imagined something so terrible could come from vaccines we were taught were innocuous.

9. A vaccination titer refers to a blood test that measures antibody protection produced in response to the last vaccine given. In other words, does your pet still have protection from the last vaccination given? Does he or she really need this vaccine? These titers are easy to get and reasonably priced. Currently we are recommending taking blood to measure vaccine titers instead of vaccinating any patient with a chronic illness or immune disorder as well as in geriatric patients. Furthermore, it is wise to screen titers from patients of any age each year the FVRCP vaccine is not due, in case the patient’s immunity has decreased. If the titer comes back “protective”, then the patient does not need the vaccine this year and the titer should be rechecked in one year. If the titer is not “protective”, giving the vaccine may be recommended. The exception to this is the Rabies vaccine; this shot is regulated by law in our state and the choice whether or not to give it is out of our hands.

10. Be assured that the doctors at Family Pet Animal Hospital will keep apprised of all changes in vaccinations and Vaccine Associated Sarcoma treatment based on ongoing research by our universities. Our mission at Family Pet Animal Hospital has always been and will always be your pet’s health. We have worked hard to update our facility annually to provide state of the art diagnostics and treatment modalities. Yet, there is nothing that replaces a physical examination for early detection of problems prior to our pets displaying signs of illness. We strongly encourage all of our clients to continue to make a yearly examination appointment; a time to check all systems and educate you on the most current thoughts in our field that may be life-saving for your pet. Please call our office if you have any questions concerning this information.

Source : Family Pet Animal Hospital

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LEPTOSPIROSIS

Recent outbreaks of Leptospirosis, a disease caused by the bacterium Leptospira, have prompted manufacturers to update canine vaccines. Leptospirosis is a leading cause of acute kidney failure in dogs and can also damage the liver. Severe Leptospira infections lead to shock and are usually fatal. It can be transmitted directly between animals, including humans, when the bacteria penetrate the lining of the mouth. More frequently, indirect transmission occurs when the bacteria shed in the affected animal’s urine and contaminate the environment, especially stagnant or slow-moving water.

There are ten serovars (strains) of Leptospira. Previously the annual DHLPP (Distemper) vaccine contained two serovars that are no longer the leading cause of the disease. The NEW DHLPP VACCINE contains Grippotyphosa and Pomona serovars that are responsible for the recent outbreaks. Recovery from the infection with Leptospirosis is dependent upon the amount of specific antibody within the animal’s system. PROTECT YOUR PET!!

Remember that Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease, which means it can be transmitted from animals to humans. PROTECT YOURSELF!! Allow Family Pet Animal Hospital to vaccinate your dog and in turn protect our community.

source: Family Pet Animal Hospital

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Thursday, March 19, 2009

Mechanism of Vaccination

HOW DO VACCINATIONS PROTECT YOUR BIRDS?
________________________________________
All chicks are vaccinated at the hatchery, and some chicks receive "booster" vaccinations after they have been in the grow-out house for several days. Have you ever wondered, "How do these vaccinations protect my chicks?"
________________________________________
The purpose of all vaccinations is to cause the birds to develop immunity to pathogens. Pathogens are things like bacteria and/or viruses. Marek's, Newcastle, Infectious Bronchitis, and Gumboro are diseases caused by viral pathogens that we normally vaccinate chicks against.
Vaccines against viruses consist of attenuated viruses that are either in cells or freed from cells. Attenuation means to reduce the ability of the virus to cause disease, that is, decrease its virulence. This is done by putting the virus through several replication cycles in embryonic cells. Then the virus is either freed from the embryonic cells or the vaccine is prepared using viruses still in the cells.
For purposes of illustration, we will assume that our chicks are vaccinated with a Marek's disease vaccine. Within minutes after the vaccine enters the body of the chick, it will be "eaten" by phagocytes. These are large cells that occur everywhere in the body. Their function is to remove foreign materials from the body. After the phagocyte has removed the Marek's virus that was in the vaccine, it will then pass a message to certain lymphocytes (white blood cells), it has encountered a foreign pathogen. The lymphocytes that receive the message originated either in the bursa of Fabricius (bursa) or in the thymus.
The bursa is a small gland located in the tail region of the bird. It looks like a flesh-colored fig. The bursa provides an environment in which certain lymphocytes, called B-cells, develop that can produce antibodies. The thymus has a series of six to seven lobes of tissue located on each side of the throat adjacent to the esophagus. Like the bursa, it provides an environment for maturation of lymphocytes, called T-cells, that produce chemicals called cytokines. These are protein-like molecules that have many functions. For instance, they kill unwanted cells that may enter the body, reject foreign tissues, kill viruses, or kill malignant cells.
The message passed from the phagocyte to the appropriate B- and T-cells will be, "B-cells make antibodies, and T-cells make cytokines against Marek's disease virus!" The next question is, "How does the phagocyte know how to do this?" This is still a mystery of science.
As soon as the B- and T-cells receive the "go" message from the phagocyte, they enter the spleen and attach to "nurse" cells. The B- and T-cells, under the constant care of the nurse cells, swell and soon divide each into two daughter cells. The two daughter cells will divide, and their daughters will divide, and so on. It takes only about 9 minutes for a division to occur. So, in a short time, we have two clones of B-cells formed as well as two clones of T-cells. The first clone of cells is called primary responders, and the second clone of cells is called memory cells.
The first clone of B-cells immediately start producing antibodies against Marek's disease virus and the first clone of T-cells produce cytokines against Marek's virus. The second clone of both B- and T-cells simply continue to divide. These memory cells do not respond during primary responses.
Figure 1 shows antibody levels in the blood that are a direct result of the action of the first clone.

NOTE SEVERAL THINGS ABOUT THESE ANTIBODY LEVELS:
• No antibodies are present until about 2 days after vaccination.
• Peak antibody level occurs at about Day 8.
• The peak lasts only a short time, and antibody levels then begin to decrease.
• By Day 14, all the antibody in the blood is gone. This is a typical primary humoral immune response. The T-cells react like the B-cells and produce what is termed a primary cell-mediated immune response.
"Would primary humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to a viral pathogen such as Marek's protect the chicks?" The answer is "No." If this were all of the protection the body can give, the chicks would have the disease.
Let's assume that when the vaccinated chicks are 14 days old, an unwanted rat enters the house and leaves behind feces loaded with live and highly virulent Marek's disease virus. Within 12 hours, the virus challenges every chicken in the house. The second clone of daughter cells (both B- and T-cells), called memory cells that did not respond during the primary responses, now responds dramatically.
We do not know what the signals for memory responses are, but the reaction, as shown in Figure 2, is immediate production of large amounts of antibody and cytokines. These memory responses destroy the invading Marek's virus and prevent the chicks from becoming ill. This is termed a secondary or memory immune response.

THESE ARE CHARACTERISTICS OF THIS RESPONSE:
• Rapid production and release of antibodies into the bloodstream so that by 2 days after challenge, antibody levels peak.
• Peak antibody levels are normally at least twice as high as levels during the primary response.
• Antibody levels remain high indefinitely. Cytokine production during a memory response has the same characteristics as a secondary response. Cytokine levels rise to high levels very quickly and remain elevated until the virus is cleared from the body.
"Will these memory responses protect the birds against Marek's disease?" The answer is a definite "YES!" This is immunity, and it is correctly defined as the ability to remember a pathogenic challenge and then to respond in a protective way whenever this pathogen is encountered again.

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Sanitation in Poultry Farm

Water Sanitation

During routine use, material build up and contamination of a water system can and will occur. As lime and scale deposits, rust, dirt and algae collect in the water lines, the functioning of the system will be affected. The build up of these substances, on the inner surface of the system can and will provide a place for microorganisms to take hold. The organic material can supply nutrients for growth and multiplication of microbes such as E.coli. Every time the bird consumes water it will be exposed to an increased microbial load through the drinking water which could result in poor feed conversions, down grading of carcasses, increased mortality and possibly increased condemnation.
The build up of this organic material could also have a negative effect on medication and vaccines delivered through the drinking water. To keep the watering system in proper working order, a routine monitoring, cleaning and sanitizing program should be developed and applied.
The environmental protection agency of the U.S.D.A allows 5,000 coliforms per 100 ml of potable water. However, resources from major poultry officials consider any number to be unacceptable. (Good 1985, Lacy 1994, Koelkbeck 1989).
The following information is to inform the reader of the choices available for water line sanitation and disinfection. One must continue to strive for water quality, as this ingredient is a key component towards poultry health.

Cleaning and sanitizing of water lines

I) Cleaning between flocks (shocking the line)
Probably the most critical time period for the cleaning of a water line system. Cleaning water lines should be a part of the routine barn cleaning and disinfection program.
1)Flush the lines with high-pressure water to dislodge heavy organic matter.
2)Fill the lines with the cleaning solution and leave it in the lines for 3 to 6 hours.
3)Clean the proportioner and change filters.
4)Flush the water lines with clean water.
5)All plasons, cups and other open drinkers must be cleaned as well.


* Do not use these concentrations when birds are in the barn

II) Cleaning With Birds Present
The objective is to keep the water lines clean while birds are in the house. This helps to remove and prevent organic build up in the water lines:
1)Medicate or dilute the indicated concentrations to provide the level needed for cleaning (Table 2).
2)Cleaning should be stopped 2 days prior to vaccination and water medication.
3)When starting this program, monitor the birds behavior to make sure they are drinking water.





III) Sanitizing Water Lines
The objective of water sanitizing is to decrease the number of microorganisms (bacteria and viruses) in the water lines. The addition of a sanitizer to the watering system not only helps to reduce the microbial load but also aids in minimizing the algae growth, mineral deposits and slime build up. The addition of chlorine also helps to reduce oxidation of iron, which helps control rust deposits in the water lines. Keep in mind that a sanitizer should not be used 48 hours prior to and 24 hours after vaccination.


Points to consider when cleaning and sanitizing water lines
1) Some cleaners in combination with medications can enhance delivery and activity.
i) Ammonia, at low levels helps to increase the solubility of sulfa drugs.
ii) Citric acid helps keep tetracycline in solution.
iii) Citric acid as a carrier for vitamins and minerals, rather than sugar, helps reduce slime build up.
2) Some products and combinations warrant some caution.
i) Hydrogen peroxide at full concentrations can be corrosive and tissue damaging.
ii) Iodine is corrosive to galvanized steel, rubber and latex.
iii) Citric acid is corrosive to galvanized steel.
iv) Chlorine at high levels can be corrosive to all metals including stainless steel.
v) Chlorine, ammonia and commercial cleaning agents should not be mixed together since some combinations can react producing dangerous gases.

Conclusion
Since poultry consume about twice as much water as they do feed, it is logical that water quality and content should be considered as one of the most important nutritional elements in production. Therefore, following a water quality assurance program based on monitoring, cleaning and sanitizing should be the most important protocol to implement. With these measures in place, there is no doubt that production parameters will be maintained and optimized.

Acknowledgements
Michael Leslie
Canadian Poultry Consultants Ltd.


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Tuesday, March 17, 2009

Decorating a Birdhouse

Decorating a Birdhouse

Submitted by jamespatt

Having a craft project to work on as a family is a great way to pass the time. It allows for something to be accomplished together and becomes a point of pride for all involved. This is especially important during the summer months when the kids are out of school and may be stir crazy for something to do.

Building and decorating a bird house is something that parents and kids can do together. It is relatively cheap and can provide hours of entertainment even after the project is completed. If your child is anything like me, they will love anything that can fly and by building a bird house it will help them to watch birds and may even challenge them to find out even more about the types of birds that frequent your backyard.

Building Your Birdhouse

Three are many different ways that you can go about building your bird house. If you want your kids to have some input, it is important for the design to remain simple. However, if building the bird house is simply for your own craft, there are many complicated and fascinating designs that can be followed. It all depends on what you are looking for from your birdhouse. Looking to impress the neighbors? There are designs that will make your own home look like a shack!

If you want your kids to be a part of the process it is very easy to make your birdhouse very simple. It is quite possible to use four or five pieces of wood and construct one with very little in the way of tools. This will allow your kids to claim ownership over the birdhouse from start to finish.

Painting Your Birdhouse

This is where your kids will have a blast! If you approached correctly, your kids will realize that this is actually a house for birds and they need to decorate it as they would their own house. Again, this will be a great exercise for kids to visualize and might spark a greater interest in birds and other animals. Although there are many ways to go about painting your birdhouse, one the best ways to go about doing this is to use a sponge brush. This will give you enough control to do what you want. Sponge brushes are also great for kids. They don’t hold too much paint, but are still able to get the job done.

One thing to keep in mind is that the paint you use should not contain any chemicals that will have potential harm to the bird who will be visiting. Please take careful notice of the type of paint you are using. Not only could this be fatal to the birds, but it could also be traumatic to your kids.

Another thing to consider is to leave the inside of the birdhouse free of any paint. It should be completely natural and free of chemicals so that the birds can freely make a home inside.

How Bright Should My Birdhouse Be Painted?

Although it might be fun to paint your birdhouse a loud color that will stand out in your yard, and this might be your kid’s color of choice, it is important to recognize that bright colors will not necessarily attract more birds. In the wild, female birds are a more subdued color for protection. This will often translate into where birds attempt to find shelter. If your birdhouse is too bright, it might not attract birds.

About the Author
James has been in the bird world for over 10 years, spending most of it breeding exotic birds.He has also written many articles for his local bird club's newsletter.Site: http://www.birdflights.com/beak.pl/cedar/how/butterfly-audubon.html


Source: ArticleTrader.com

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The Basics of Feeding Wild Baby Birds

The Basics of Feeding Wild Baby Birds
Submitted by webrunner
Mon, 25 Aug 2008

Have you found yourself in the position of baby bird caregiver?

In feeding wild baby birds, you have a few different options available. To aid you in feeding these birds in need, you can use a variety of tools to deliver the food. Tools to consider that are easily available include: tweezers, syringes, eyedroppers, small paint brushes, popsicle sticks, blunt toothpicks, your fingers and pipettes.

Depending on what food or formula you're giving, pick the most suitable tool or a combination. The thickness of the food formula is usually dependant on the age of the bird so if you're feeding a group use a combination of tools that are most effective.Young birds will readily reach out for food until they are full. Avoid over-feeding baby birds but remember they need frequent small feedings. If they are slow to take food, they may be full or too dehydrated to eat. Also if a baby bird doesn't take food, it may be sick, nervous, or unaware that your gesture is a feeding attempt. In these cases, try taping the side of the nest or whistle lightly so as to mimic a parent birds arrival home.

Baby birds in the wild are naturally fed throughout the day. You'll want to do the same as the bird's caregiver. Generally hatchings should be fed every 20 minutes. Young birds who are not babies can be fed every two hours. Try to give baby birds the same food they would naturally eat in the wild. You may need to research what that particular bird species normally eats. You may also call a local animal center to inquire about what food is appropriate or if a formula recipe is suitable for your particular bird. When feeding ensure that any food is cleaned up and not left to dry on the bird's feathers as this can cause skin problems or feather to fall off.

The goal of you as the caregiver of a baby bird, is to provide temporary care until the bird is well enough to survive in it's natural environment on it's own. Avoid interacting with bird other than at feeding and cleaning times. Also ensure that the bird is kept away from domestic animals including pet birds.

I hope this helps you rehabilitate and feed the wild baby birds you find in need.
About the Author
Eve Duncan is a freelance writer, researcher and web publisher from Canada. To get other tips about birds and squirrel problems, visit Squirrelproofer.com where you can also learn squirrel proof bird feeders.


Source: ArticleTrader.com

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Tuesday, March 3, 2009

Parasites That Love Your Dog

Parasites That Love Your Dog
By: Lee Dobbins

Your dog might not love them, but there are many common parasites that love your dog. If your dog is not properly cared for he can become infested with any of these pests and develop illness or life threatening disease.

Luckily, there are many ways to ward off and get rid of parasites which are as simple as taking pills or using drops. With proper care and prevention, your dog will be generally free and safe from parasites and diseases but if you do notice your dog acting strangly, not eating or scratching too much, it's best to get him to the vet right away.

Some common parasites that can take up residence on your dog include:

Ticks
We all know fido gets fleas and ticks in the summer, but ticks can pose more serious problems than due to diseases like Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and Lyme disease. You should check your dog for ticks religiously especially if he spends a lot of time outdoors. Tweezers can be used to remove ticks one by one. If you do not know how to remove ticks properly and carefully, ask your vet first. If you do know how, put them in a can with soap and water after removal.

Fleas
These are the most common external parasites and can cause the dog to continuously scratch various parts of the body. It may get so bad that your dog loses fur in the infested areas. Ask your veterinarian to put your pet on a good flea-control program and be aware that fleas could become resistant to some products over time.

Lice
Lice is less common than fleas but can affect dogs. Your vet will have several treatments that can easily get rid of lice in dogs.

Heartworm
Caused by mosquito bites, heartworm resides in your dogs heart and blood vessels. A dog infected by heartworms looks dull and may even have a chronic cough. There are many heartworm medications that can prevent your dog from developing this disease - ask your vet which one is best for your pet.

Hookworm
Hookworms can cause anemia an loss of appetite and can be given by the mother dog to a puppy during the nursing period or even before birth.

Tapeworm
A dog can get tapeworm from swallowing larvae-laden fleas. There are not many symptoms with tapeworm but you might see rice-like pieces in your dogs stools. This is one good reason to always bring a stool sample to your vet when you bring your pet in for a yearly checkup.

Roundworm
Roundworms cause pneumonia, diarrhea, dehydration, stunted growth, and vomiting. A dog with roundworm may have a pot belly.

Whipworm
A dog infected with whipworms may have diarrhea and other ailments like, stool mucus, and serious bowel inflammation. Extreme weight loss is also a symptom caused by whipworms.

Although our dog can attract any of these parasites, most of them can be easily taken care of. Proper care and maintenance and routine visits to the vet will help keep your dog happy, healthy and parasite free.

Author Bio
Lee Dobbins writes for Epet Pet Center where you can find more on how to keep your pet healthy and happy.
Article Source: http://www.ArticleGeek.com - Free Website Content


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